Relativity: the special and general theory

Relativity: the special and general theory descargar libro pdf

Puntos de vista:

1478

Idioma:

Inglés

Clasificación:

5.0

Departamento:

Ciencias Naturales

Número de páginas:

115

Sección:

física moderna

Tamaño del archivo:

725218 MB

calidad del libro :

Bueno

descargar un libro:

68

Notificación

Si te opones a publicar el libro, por favor contáctanos. [email protected]

Albert Einstein (14 de marzo de 1879 - 18 de abril de 1955) fue un físico alemán, suizo y estadounidense, de padres judíos.En Física, publicó un trabajo de investigación sobre el efecto fotoeléctrico, entre otros trescientos trabajos científicos suyos en la equivalencia de la materia y la energía, la mecánica cuántica y otros, y sus conclusiones probadas condujeron a la interpretación de muchos fenómenos científicos que la física clásica no pudo probar. Einstein comenzó con la "relatividad especial" que contradecía la teoría del tiempo y el espacio de Newton para resolver en particular los problemas de la vieja teoría sobre las ondas electromagnéticas en general, y la luz en particular, y eso fue entre (1902-1909) en Suiza. En cuanto a la "relatividad general", la presentó en 1915, en la que discutió la gravedad, y representa la descripción actual de la gravedad en la física moderna. La relatividad general generaliza tanto la relatividad especial como la ley de gravitación universal de Newton, proporcionando una descripción unificada de la gravedad como una propiedad geométrica del espacio y el tiempo, o espacio-tiempo.

Descripción del libro

Relativity: the special and general theory libro pdf leer y descargar por Albert Einstein

From the Commentary by Robert Geroch (The corresponding section of Einstein’s text can be found below the comment. Please note that in the book, the Commentary is placed after the complete text of Relativity.) Section 17. Space-Time Minkowski’s viewpoint represents a "geometrization" of relativity. These ideas have, over the years, come to the forefront: They reflect the perspective of the majority of physicists working in relativity today. Let us expand on this viewpoint. The fundamental notion is that of an event, which we think of as a physical occurrence having negligibly small extension in both space and time. That is, an event is "small and quick," such as the explosion of a firecracker or the snapping of your fingers. Now consider the collection of all possible events in the universe—all events that have ever happened, all that are happening now, and all that will ever happen; here and elsewhere. This collection is called space-time. It is the arena in which physics takes place in relativity. The idea is to recast all statements about goings-on in the physical world into geometrical structures within this space-time. In a similar vein, you might begin the study of plane geometry by introducing the notion of a point (analogous to an event) and assembling all possible points into the plane (analogous to space-time). This plane is the arena for plane geometry, and each statement that is part of plane geometry is to be cast as geometrical structure within this plane. This space-time is a once-and-for-all picture of the entire physical world. Nothing "happens" there; things just "are." A physical particle, for example, is described in the language of space-time by giving the locus of all events that occur "right at the particle." The result is a certain curve, or path, in space-time called the world-line of the particle. Don’t think of the particle as "traversing" its world-line in the same sense that a train traverses its tracks. Rather, the world-line represents, once and for all, the entire life history of the particle, from its birth to its death. The collision of two particles, for example, would be represented geometrically by the intersection of their world-lines. The point of intersection—a point common to both curves; an event that is "right at" both particles—represents the event of their collision. In a similar way, more complicated physical goings-on—an experiment in particle physics, for example, or a football game—are incorporated into the fabric of space-time. One example of "physical goings-on" is the reference frame that Einstein uses in his discussion of special relativity. How is this incorporated into space-time? The individuals within a particular reference frame assign four numbers, labeled x, y, z, t, to each event in space-time. The first three give the spatial location of the event according to these observers, the last the time of the event. These numbers completely and uniquely characterize the event. In geometrical terms, a frame of reference gives rise to a coordinate system on space-time. In a similar vein, in plane geometry a coordinate system assigns two numbers, x and y, to each point of the plane. These numbers completely and uniquely characterize that point. The statement "the plane is two-dimensional" means nothing more and nothing less than that precisely two numbers are required to locate each point in the plane. Similarly, "space-time is four-dimensional" means nothing more and nothing less than that precisely four numbers are required to locate each event in space-time. That is all there is to it! You now understand "four-dimensional space-time" as well as any physicist. Note that the introduction of four-dimensional space-time does not say that space and time are "equivalent" or "indistinguishable." Clearly, space and time are subjectively different entities. But a rather subtle mixing of them occurs in special relativity, making it convenient to introduce this single entity, space-time. In plane geometry, we may change coordinates, i.e., relabel the points. It is the same plane described in a different way (in that a given point is now represented by different numbers), just as the land represented by a map stays the same whether you use latitude/longitude or GPS coordinates. We can now determine formulae expressing the new coordinate-values for each point of the plane in terms of the old coordinate-values. Similarly, we may change coordinates in space-time, i.e., change the reference frame therein. And, again, we can determine formulae relating the new coordinate-values for each space-time event to the old coordinate-values for that event. This, from Minkowski’s geometrical viewpoint, is the substance of the Lorentz-transformation formulae in Section 11. A significant advantage of Minkowski’s viewpoint is that it is particularly well-adapted also to the general theory of relativity. We shall return to this geometrical viewpoint in our discussion of Section 27.

Reseña del libro

5.0

out of

5 stars

1

0

0

0

0

Book Quotes

Top rated
Latest
Quote
there are not any quotes

there are not any quotes

Más libros Albert Einstein

Einstein's Cosmos
Einstein's Cosmos
física moderna
1389
English
Albert Einstein
Einstein's Cosmos libro pdf leer y descargar por Albert Einstein
DK Life Stories: Albert Einstein
DK Life Stories: Albert Einstein
biografía
1711
English
Albert Einstein
DK Life Stories: Albert Einstein libro pdf leer y descargar por Albert Einstein
Einstein's miraculous year: five papers that changed the face of physics
Einstein's miraculous year: five papers that changed the face of physics
física moderna
963
English
Albert Einstein
Einstein's miraculous year: five papers that changed the face of physics libro pdf leer y descargar por Albert Einstein
The meaning of relativity
The meaning of relativity
física moderna
5.0000
1288
English
Albert Einstein
The meaning of relativity libro pdf leer y descargar por Albert Einstein

Más libros física moderna

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science
Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science
829
English
Yshai Avishai
Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science libro pdf leer y descargar por Yshai Avishai
Twenty-First Century Quantum Mechanics
Twenty-First Century Quantum Mechanics
953
English
Seymour Michael Blinder
Twenty-First Century Quantum Mechanics libro pdf leer y descargar por Seymour Michael Blinder
The Universe in a Nutshell
The Universe in a Nutshell
2372
English
Stephen Hawking
The Universe in a Nutshell libro pdf leer y descargar por Stephen Hawking
Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers
Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers
2018
English
Stephen Thornton
Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers libro pdf leer y descargar por Stephen Thornton

Add Comment

Authentication required

You must log in to post a comment.

Log in
There are no comments yet.