Mesopotamia History
Mesopotamia (Aramaic: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ between two rivers, meaning "country of the two rivers", Greek: Μεσοποταμία Mesopotamia, meaning Mesopotamia) is a geographical and historical region located in southwestern Asia. It is one of the first cultural centers in the world. It is currently located in Iraq, Syria and Turkey between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The most famous of its civilizations is the civilization of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria and Chaldeans, which originated from Iraq. With the flourishing of civilizations in Mesopotamia and in simultaneous and successive times, the neighboring lands were occupied, occupying in the east parts of Iran, specifically the Elam civilization (which is currently known as the province of Khuzestan), and in the west, Syria, all the way to Palestine, where the Babylonian captivity took place during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. After the death of Nebuchadnezzar, the Mesopotamian civilization passed through the era of decadence and decline, while the Persian civilization arose and developed. Babylon and beyond were occupied by Cyrus and Ctesiphon (currently known as Al-Mada’in) became southeast of Baghdad as the capital of the Persian state until what is known as the Islamic conquest of Iraq and the Levant by Omar bin al-khattab. Iraq remained under the rule of Muslims until the round city of Baghdad was built during the era of the Abbasid ruler Al-Mansur, then Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and this era was considered the Islamic Golden Age. In 1920, he announced the emergence of the first provisional government in Iraq after the demise of the rule of the Ottoman Empire, and the era of the Iraqi Kingdom began, then turned to republican rule.