زينب

زينب Novel pdf

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A great Egyptian poet, writer and politician, he was born on August 20, 1888 AD corresponding to Dhu al-Hijjah 12, 1305 AH in the village of Kafr Ghannam in the city of Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. He studied law at the Khedivial School of Law in Cairo and graduated in 1909. He obtained a doctorate in law from the Sorbonne University in France in 1912, and upon his return to Egypt, he worked as a lawyer for 10 years, and also worked in the press. He contacted Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid and was influenced by his ideas, and adhered to his directives, as was influenced by Sheikh Muhammad Abdo, Qasim Amin and others. He was a member of the Thirty Committee that drafted the 1923 constitution, the first constitution to be promulgated in independent Egypt according to the February 28, 1922 statement. When the Constitutional Liberal Party established a weekly newspaper called al-Seyassah al-Swkiba, he appointed Heikal as its editor-in-chief in 1926. He was chosen as Minister of Education in the ministry formed by Muhammad Mahmoud in 1938 AD, but that government resigned after a while, but he returned as Minister of Education for the second time in 1940 AD in the Ministry of Hussein Serri. He remained there until 1942 AD, then returned and assumed this position again in 1944 AD, and the Ministry of Social Affairs was added to it in 1945 AD. He was chosen in 1941 AD as Vice-President of the Constitutional Liberal Party, then took over the leadership of the party in 1943 AD, and remained its leader until the parties were abolished after the July 23, 1952 revolution. He assumed the presidency of the Senate in 1945 AD and continued to preside over this Legislative Council until June 1950 AD, when the delegation government issued the famous decrees Which led to the expulsion of Heikal and many members of the opposition from the council as a result of the interrogations that were presented in the council and discussed accusations leveled against Karim Thabet, one of King Farouk's advisors. He also represented Saudi Arabia in signing the Charter of the League of Arab States in 1945 AD. He also headed the Egyptian delegation to the United Nations more than once. He died on Saturday, Jumada Al-Awwal 5, 1376 AH, corresponding to December 8, 1956 AD, at the age of 68.

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زينب novel pdf by Muhammad Hussain Heikal

تأثر الكاتب المبدع محمد حسين هيكل إلى حدٍّ كبيرٍ بالفكر الرومانسي — خاصة الفيلسوف چان چاك روسو — وقد بدا ذلك جليًّا في رواية «زينب» التي تعد أول رواية عربية باتفاق النقاد، حيث تدور أحداث الرواية داخل ثنائية (المجتمع/الطبيعة) هذه الثنائية تتجلى بصورة واضحة في شخصيات الرواية، فـ«حامد» هو ذلك الشخص الذي يجسد المرآة الصافية للطبيعة حيث تنسجم تصرفاته مع محيطه الطبيعي، أما «زينب» و«حسن» و«إبراهيم» فهم أشخاص ينتمون إلى نماذج مجتمعية، تعيش داخل تقاليد وأعراف فرضت عليها من محيطها الاجتماعي؛ لذلك فهي خارج دائرة الفعل باستمرار، تتلقى الأوامر والإرشادات الأخلاقية من محيطها الاجتماعي دون نقد أو مراجعة، والصراع في الرواية قائم على أساس هذه الثنائية.

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